Patch Testing In Nepalese Population: A Single Center Study From Kathmandu, Nepal
Introduction: Patch testing is a diagnostic tool used in investigation to identify specific allergens in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). It helps find the prevalence and the trends of contact sensitization in the community.
Objective: To report the two year patch test results from a central hospital in Kathmandu.
Materials and Methods: Consecutive consenting patients of suspected ACD were patch tested with an Indian standard Series (Systopic) from June 2014 to August 2016.
Results: Out of 141 patients tested, 89 were female (63.12%) and 52 were male (36.88%). Hand eczema was the commonest pattern (53 patients) followed by persistent and recurrent eczema (44 patients) and face eczema (25 patients). Fifty- five patients (39%) had at least 1 positive allergic reaction. Among these, 16.31% were male and 22.70% were female. The most common allergen was nickel sulfate (19.9%) followed by fragrance mix (7.8%) and paraphenyldiamine (PPD) (6.4%). Out of total positive cases 27 (21 females and 6 males) had shown strong positive reactions (++). The Nickel Sulfate was responsible in majority of cases (18/27 cases). Farmers had the highest (57.14%) rate of positive allergic reactions followed by housewives (39.62%). According to the regional eczema, patients with persistent and recurrent eczema of different parts of body had the highest rate of positive allergic reactions (47.72%). Almost half of patient with facial eczema (40%) had positive patch test.
Conclusion: Larger studies are required in the different parts of the country to find a more accurate data regarding the sensitization pattern in Nepalese population.
Keywords: Allergens, Dermatitis, Allergic Contact, Eczema, Nickel sulfate